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U.S.S. Little Rock CL 92

and the


CURTISS SC-1

Page late updated: 02 Dec 2014

SC-1 Painting


The Curtiss SC-1 Seahawk was a vital piece of U.S.S. Little Rock CL 92 Armament.
Below are a few facts about this amazing "weapon" and the people who flew and cared for it.


The Aircraft
The Curtiss SC-1 "Seahawk" was designed to meet the need for a reconnaissance seaplane that could be launched from US Navy battleships and cruisers. Designed as a single-seat aircraft the SC-1 could theoretically hold its' own against enemy fighters.

The SC-1 was the last of the scout observation types and was the most highly developed with vastly improved performance over earlier types. Power, range and armament had doubled its usefulness. It was highly maneuverable, had two forward firing .50 cal. guns, large flaps and automatic leading edge slats for improved slow speed characteristics, and radar carried on the underside of the starboard wing proved highly successful during search missions. Space needed for stowage of the aircraft aboard ship was minimized by folding the wings back manually, making the overall width equal to the span of the horizontal tail surfaces.

Built in Columbus, Ohio, the SC-1 was initially fitted out with a fixed wheel undercarriage. It was then was ferried to Naval bases where the floats were attached.

 The SC-1 was liked by some pilots and disliked by others, but generally well accepted. It could out climb an F6F "Hellcat" to 6,000 ft. and out-turn the F8F "Bearcat".

Losses with the "Seahawk" were high, caused mostly by the extremely hazardous conditions in which they operated. With too hard a water landing the engine would drop, causing the propeller to cut through the float. Several mishaps occurred due to a faulty auto-pilot system. Aircraft and pilots were lost due to unknown landing accidents. It wasn't until one pilot "walked away", that it was discovered that the auto-pilot was taking over on landings. As a result, all automatic pilot systems were made inoperative on all SC's. (For more information see U.S.S. Little Rock "Collision at Sea and other Underway Hazards" page.)

During the height of their career, crews aboard ship looked with pleasure at the "Seahawks" aft on the catapults as their "Quarterdeck Messerschmitts".

The SC-1 first flew in February 1944 and 950 were ordered, later decreased to 566 because of the Victory in the Pacific. It continued in service for a number of years after the war as trainers, eventually being replaced by helicopters.

Curtiss SC-1 Profile Drawing

(Click drawing for a larger view)

Specifications
Paint Scheme: Post Jan 1943
Crew:
Speed - Cruise:
Speed - Max:
Range:
Ceiling:
Engine:
Horse Power:
Length:
Height:
Wingspan:
Wing area:
Wing load:
Weight:
Take off wt:
Armament:
1
130 mph
315 mph
625 mi
37,300 ft
Wright R-1820-62 Cyclone 9
1350 hp
36' 5"
17'
41'
280 sq. ft.
32.19 lbs/ft2
7240 lbs..
9000 lbs..
2 - 50 cal. Machine Guns,
1 - 650 lb. Bomb

Upper surfaces:   Non-specular Sea Blue (#35042).
Mid surfaces:   Non-specular Intermediate Blue (#35164).
Lower surfaces:   Non-specular Insignia White (#37875)

Paint Scheme: 1947

Overall glossy Seablue (# 15042),
with white numbers and letters & red bar
in U.S. insignia in four positions.




Curtiss SC-1 Pre-Flight, Launch and Recovery Photos

SC-1 On Catapult

SC-1 on catapult with wings extended.
(Note tie-down gear.)

SC-1 Prior to Launch

Pre-launch briefing ?

SC1 Pre-Launch

Pre-launch preparations

SC-1 Being Launched

SC-1 just prior to leaving catapult


SC-1 In Flight

Curtiss SC-1 in flight

SC1 Landing

SC-1 landing
Official US Navy Photo

SC-1 Taxi-ing

SC-1 taxi-ing in smooth water
Official US Navy Photo
SC-1 Rough Water Approach

Making a rough water approach alongside USS Alaska
Official US Navy Photo K3725


SC-1 Approaching Sled

An SC-1 approaching towed sled
SC-1 on sled

SC-1 on sled alongside USS Alaska (Engine is stopped.)
Official US Navy Photo K3747


On Sled



On the sled. Preparing for recovery

Recovery of SC-1

SC-1 being hoisted by ship's crane
(USS Wilkes-Barre CL-103)


SC-1 Stowed Wings Folded

SC-1 stowed on launcher with wings folded.


SC1 ship launch

SC-1 being launched from an un-named ship.



Photos Of  SC1's On the USS Little Rock


(Click on photo to enlarge)


CL92 SC1 Taxiing

USS Little Rock SC-1 taxis alongside for pick-up
(Photo from Arkansas Traveler)


Walde Lindemann Photos


Linde In Cockpit

Walde Lindemann
in SC-1 cockpit



Linde on Wing

Walde Lindemann
on SC-1 wing.



Pilot with Crew

USS Little Rock CL-92
pilot with crew


SC1 on Catapult

Walde Lindemann
on catapult



SC1 on Catapult

SC-1 on Catapult

Victor Division

SC-1's Victor Division (Photo #1)

Standing: Unknown, Thorsby, Unknown,
Pate,  Chief Storms, Chief (?),
John Dolan,  Ens. Robert Friedlein


Kneeling: Unknown, Walde Lindemann,
Unknown, Unknown, Duffy, DuFrane,
Overstreet

Photo #1 courtesy of Walde Lindemann

An interesting note:

Photo #1 on the left
was sent to us by ship-
mate Walde Lindemann.
Standing in the rear, at
the far right is Ens. Robert
Friedlein, an SC-1 pilot.

Photo #2 on the right
was sent to us by Thomas
Friedlein, the brother of SC-1
pilot Robert Friedlein.
However Photo #2 doesn't
show ENS Friedlein!

(So, we've emailed a higher
resolution copy of  Photo
#1 to Thomas Friedlein.)

Victor Division Picture #2

SC-1's Victor Division (Photo #2)

Standing: Unknown, Thorsby, Unknown,
Pate,  Chief Storms, Chief (?),
Unknown,
John Dolan

Kneeling: Unknown, Walde Lindemann,
Unknown, Duffy, DuFrane, Overstreet


Photo #2 courtesy of Thomas Friedlein
the brother of Robert Friedlein.


Linde with SC1 Model

Walde Lindemann with his
scratch-built model of SC-1





Walt Nebiker Photos
SN, 4th Division, 1947-1948

SC1 On Crane

SC-1 being retrieved
by ship's crane


SC1 In Venice


SC-1 on catapult while CL-92
is moored pierside in Venice.
Note that plane's port wing
is in stowed position.



SC1 Makes Approach

SC-1 making approach to
towed sled. Note extended catapult with crew member directing approach and
ship's wake used to
smooth seas.



SC1 In Heavy Seas

SC-1 on port catapult
secured (hopefully) for
heavy weather!

Ens. Logan on SC1 Float

Ens. Logan on float of his SC-1

CL92 MWB approach

Motor Whale Boat from ship prepares to tow SC-1.
Ens. Logan is standing
on SC-1 float.



Roger Oosterink Photos
DC3, R Division, 1947-1948


SC1 Launch from USS Little Rock

A great photo of an SC1 launch from USS LITTLE ROCK CL 92. The photo shows the plane at the moment it leaves the catapult cradle. Note the crew covering their ears as protection from the noise of the SC1 engine and the catapult charge.


SC1 Launch from USS Little Rock

Another great photo of an SC1 launch from LITTLE ROCK. This photo shows the plane clearing the lifelines a moment after the it left the catapult.

SC1 Salvage Attempt

The USS LITTLE ROCK's Motor Whale Boat prepares to tow an inverted SC-1.
This is possibly the plane flown by Ensign Logan as noted in the Walt Nebiker photos above.



SC-1 Accidents (non-USS Little Rock related)
The photos below were obtained from the National Naval Aviation Museum,
U.S Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida.

(No information pertaining to the circumstances or personnel involved was available from the museum.)

SC-1 Field Crash Photo #1

SC-1 Crash in Cornfield (Photo #1)
(Undated)
SC-1 Field Crash #2

SC-1 Crash in Cornfield (Photo #2)
(Undated)

SC1 on trailer

Wrecked SC-1 on Flatbed Trailer
(Undated)

SC-1 Crash 1945

Wrecked SC-1 in Field
(ca. 1945)


The men who flew USS Little Rock's SC-1's


Fitzpatrick, Charles "Charlie" R. , LTJG (See photo below)
•  Frank, Jules ("Senior Aviator")  (See Schultz)
Friedlein, Robert "Bob", Ens. (See Walde Lindemann photos above.)
 Hoffman, B. F., LTJG / LT  (See "Arkansas Traveler" 09 Jul 47, 17 Sep 47)
 Logan, Ens.  (See Nebiker photos above.)
 •  Merriman, W. R. , Ens (See Breslin's comments)  (See accident report and photos)
 Sandoval, E. E., LT (See "Arkansas Traveler" 17 Sep 47)
 Smith, H. L., Ens. (See "Arkansas Traveler" 09 Jul 47)
• Wheeler, O. E., LT (See Christmas Menu 1947)

Lt. Fitzpatrick & Unknown Pilot

The above photo, in the 1945-1949 Cruise Book, reads
"Lieutenant Fitzpatrick (left) who died in the line of duty."

After extensive research we have learned that Lt(jg) Fitzpatrick died in a crash of his SC-1
on New Year's Eve day 1946 off the coast of Rehoboth Beach, New Jersey


(For more info see "Accidents, Collisions and other Underway Hazards" page


Crew Recollections:

From: Al Yoder, FC2/C, 1946-1949

"I don't remember Lt. Fitzpatrick being killed. I have the names of two other pilots, Lt. B.F. Hoffman & Lt. E.E. Sandoval. These two got lost and landed on the calm ocean off Newport. I think I remember they were located somehow and the Destroyers and Little Rock took off at high speed. The impressive thing was that after an hour the Rock passed all the Destroyers and arrived at the downed aircraft, & recovered them. I don't know any other details."
20 Jun 08



From: John Breslin, S1/C 1945-46

".... from my "Air, Aft" lookout post behind the highest aft director, I witnessed and described, (on SP phone), our only complete aircraft loss during my time aboard.  Ensign W. R. Merryman was landing one of our scout planes south of Cuba, on the smoothed-over water surface our ship always created for landings, by making a slowed-down sliding turn.  As Ens. Merryman was taxiing up towards our towed recovery netted sled, his plane suddenly nosed over, engine still turning and tail straight up in the air.  The pilot was pitched forward out of his cockpit, into a bright, clear sea, teeming with hundreds of visible sharks.  I reported the sharks immediately on my SP phone, but they were also clearly visible from all parts of our ship.  The OD immediately ordered the rescue whaleboat's crew not to enter the water, but when the swimming pilot was not able to grasp the boathook, my buddy and bunk-neighbor, (whose rack was directly across the aisle), immediately dove over his bow and swam to the pilot who was losing consciousness.   Grasping the pilot's life vest collar, "Sully", or Cox. W. M. Sullivan, swam closer to the whaleboat and then helped push the limp pilot aboard, as others pulled him in.  "Sully" did get a Life Saving Medal for risking a plunge into shark-infested waters against orders." (Click HERE for more details and photos.)
August 2008


From: Anthony Mastroianni, S1/C C Div.  1945-46

Regarding the 8/4/45 loss of our plane....  I remember that incident quite well as I was on duty on bridge and witnessed the accident. Prior to the accident an object was reported in the water. (The) crew manned the 40mm to sink object. It was shortly after that incident, that as we were preparing to retrieve our aircraft, the pilot approached the ship to land, hit a wave, and capsized. Being on duty on the bridge I was called as part of rescue crew that manned the whale boat to retrieve pilot. On that day the weather was fine.
29 Apr 2013

From: Don Slack, S1/C 1946-47

"As near as I can remember, Lt. Fitzpatrick was lost when he landed after being catapulted off the aft stern practicing take-offs and landings in the North Atlantic".
13 Jun 08



From: Arthur Schultz, CDR. MC, USN (Ship's Doctor) 1945-46
From a letter dated Oct, 29, 1945: (While in Puerto Rico... )

"I had a unique experience, and one that will remain with me as long as I live.  Jules Frank - our senior aviator took me up with him in a two seater plane called an SNJ - an advanced trainer with a 500 hp motor and retractable landing gear.....  during our flight we used up 65 gallons of 91 octane gasoline at 30 cents per gallon to the Navy - and all for the asking for me."


The Men Who Maintained our SC-1
's
•  Dolan
•  Duffy
•  DuFrane
 •  Lindemann, Walde
•  Overstreet
•  Pate
•  Chief Storms
•  Thorsby



Some thoughts from others about the Curtiss SC1


"LAST OF A BREED"
"Aloha, Charley, Aloha"

by Patricia Groves

American Aircraft Modeler Magazine
November 1974 Issue

Although U.S. Navy observers were present at the Army's first military trials in september, 1908, until 1910 the official Navy Department position was that "the development of an aeroplane has not progressed sufficiently at this time for use in the Navy." (1)

Then, on Nov. 14, 1910, when Gene Ely flew a Curtiss pusher off a specially constructed deck on the cruiser Birmingham and landed safely ashore, the secretary of the Navy was finally persuaded to recommend to Congress the "maintenance of an aerial corps."

Two months later, Ely landed a Curtiss pusher on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco Bay, and stayed aboard for nearly an hour before returning safely to the San Francisco Peninsula. Then, within a matter of days, Glenn Curtiss made the first successful flight with an airplane capable of "taking off and alighting upon the water."

By February 17, the Pennsylvania was anchored off San Diego, and Curtiss felt sufficiently comfortable with the technique to fly up to and land alongside the cruiser, and be hoisted aboard. His "hydro-aeroplane" was then lowered back into the water, and after restart (in itself a major accomplishment), it was flown back to Curtiss' winter quarters on North Island.

Even before these early experiments in launching airplanes from ships, the world's naval authorities were divided into two camps. One held that it would be better to make a ship self-sufficient by providing space for the launching and landing of seaplanes on battleships, with aviators aboard each ship, while the other faction felt it would be better to have regular "seaplane carriers" which would provide ship squadrons with an air service.

But this posed a problem. It would be illogical to expect a cruiser in action to slow down in order to launch or hoist in an airplane. Yet, having capital ships independent would, on the other hand, keep from concentrating all air equipment on one ship which could be destroyed by enemy action, depriving the whole squadron of an air service. On the horns of a dilemma, the Navy explored its options.

While the aircraft carrier (per se) evolved with a glamour and tradition peculiar to its circumstances, the air arm of capital ships of the fleet traveled a somewhat oblique course.

After a soggy false start, Lt. T.G. Ellyson and a Curtiss AH-3 were launched from a compressed air catapult on Nov. 12, 1912. Although speedy recovery of an aircraft while under way at sea would pose a problem until 1933, launching techniques continued to improve through experience and the technological surge that came with World War I. By the middle Twenties, the more efficient black powder catapult was perfected, and installed on various warships during major overhaul. Early air units were then assigned from various land-based Observation and Scouting (or VO/VS) squadrons.

Not only was it an insult to the "purity" of ship design, but the installation of aviation paraphernalia (catapult, crane) necessarily resulted in dislocation of sailors and their equipment. And naval aviators were (and still are) referred to as "brown shoes" while real sailors were in the "black shoe" Navy.

On April 18, 1933, the first successful sea-underway recovery came when Lt. G. A. Ott landed an O2U alongside the USS Maryland, and taxied up onto a "sled" (somewhat like a cargo net) being dragged by the battleship. (2) When a hook on his float was caught in the webbing, Ott cut power and let the airplane settle back and be carried along with the ship. A cargo hook was lowered, and the plane hoisted aboard.

During the Thirties, U.S. Navy aircraft, equipment, and launch and recovery techniques improved and changed as mission requirements slowly solidified. Due to a shortage of shore-based facilities in the Pacific, the aircraft carrier developed. There was a brief but disastrous flirtation with dirigibles (which also carried airplanes aboard). Land-based equipment was acquired for expanding naval air stations. And then there were the shipborne seaplanes of the VO/VS squadrons in the Fleet Battle and Scouting Forces.

When the European powers squared off against one another in the opening days of World War II, world naval strategy was pretty much a continuation of the 1914-1918 War. Battleships, although vulnerable to attack within range of land-based planes, were still considered "the backbone of the fleet," and superior on the high seas. (3)

But, by mid-1941, it became all too apparent that with or without battleships, a surface fleet couldn't perform its traditional role unless it commanded the air above the sea. Some two weeks after the U-boat sinking of the British battleship, HMS Barham, in the Mediterranean, Japanese carrier-based aircraft attacked Pearl Harbor, clobbering much of the American battleship inventory.

By this time, U.S. cruisers and battleships carried from two to four seaplanes assigned to various Observation and Scouting squadrons. Already a curious breed, the VO/VS squadrons became more so after December. After Pearl Harbor. these warships then operated as a unit of ship and airplane. And aviation duties of the men aboard were in addition to regular shipboard assignments, making them, in a sense, neither fish nor fowl. (4)

For most of the war, the VO/VS squadrons performed their "eyes of the fleet" duties in standard Navy floatplane reconnaissance and scouting aircraft - the lumbering two-seat Curtiss SOCs and Vought OS2Us. But since these slower airplanes were vulnerable, the Navy issued a bid invitation on a single-seat, scouting float plane which would perform much like a fighter. (5)

In June, 1942, Curtiss-Wright Corp. submitted a proposal for an airplane with combined armament and performance sufficient to fly combat against most aircraft, yet still slow enough to shadow the enemy fleet for long periods of time. Called the Seahawk, its prototype (the XSC-1) was first flown Feb. 16, 1944, and production was under way by that summer. (6)

Introduced into squadron service in October, 1944, the SC-1s patrolled the skies over the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, searching for bogies above and below, spotting for naval gunfire, and performing air-sea rescue duties. If troops being convoyed overseas viewed such seaplanes catapulted off battleships and cruisers as a curiosity, so did the sailors.

When war became peace, the VO/VS squadrons rapidly decreased in number. By April, 1949, the last one was decommissioned, and those SC-1s that remained (out of 567 produced) were scrapped, moth-balled or assigned to training units.

But, in the meantime, many SC-1s and aviators had been catapulted into the wild blue, and scooped up out of the sea. One was Lt(jg) Charles E. Roth, USN, who, by the time he reported to the USS Providence in 1947, was fully qualified to wear a black shoe on one foot and a brown one on the other. (7)

An Annapolis graduate and assistant navigator on the Augusta at war's end, he signed up for flight training. Pleased that a qualified deck officer should show so much interest in one of the lesser sciences, the Navy Department granted his wish. Charley was sent to flying school and indoctrinated into the whole nine yards.

But tradition dies hard in the Navy. When it became apparent that the potential admiral showed no inclination to get back into full-time black shoes, the ingrate was dropped into the first available VO squadron to ponder the error of his ways.

But with Charley, a tour on the USS Providence (with its SC-1s) was fine. He liked ships and he liked airplanes. Shoes were just something to keep the holes in your socks from showing.

In spite of its ungainly appearance, the SC-1 was maneuverable, easy to fly, and in slow flight - magnifique! Although imbued with a forgiving nature, it was, nevertheless, an airplane one had to stay with all of the time. Any fiddling around with your E6B, for instance, resulted in unusual attitudes for the unwary. (Autopilots had been removed.)

On a water takeoff, all one could see was cowl, because up front a buxom R-1820-62 engine was turbo-supercharged and ready. You say you want to go? OK. Give it full right rudder, aim 20° to the right of the wind, and 1,350 horses will take you in a screaming arc to the left. Surprising, perhaps, but a joy to power-starved VO/VS pilots whose only alternative was the lackluster OS2U, so underpowered that in calm water, it was in danger of being passed by the average swimmer.

On the day an SC-1 pilot makes his first sea-underway recovery, he is performing before divine Providence - and the crew as well.

The first thing is to find the ship. Preferably, your ship. But, assuming the navigation has been reasonably accurate and the gentlemen on board truthfully conveyed their intended course (a nagging doubt that is not entirely without foundation), then that gray sliver riding a sea of blue below is your target. By her hull number (82) shall ye know her. It is indeed the Providence, and how could a 610-foot length of steel seem so small?

Dropping down and circling at about 300 feet overhead will be interpreted as either a request to be shot out of the sky or, a request to come aboard. In the absence of black puffs of smoke, you may assume that preparations are under way to accept you, and the captain will so signify by running up the "C" (or "Charley") flag.

Below you, 10,000 tons of ship is traveling at about 15 knots, or standard speed, and this must be reduced to eight knots before you can hope to get aboard. So first, the captain will turn the ship 45 degrees out of the wind to the right. After he's done that, down comes the Charley flag.

Then, just as you're flying alongside him, he'll start a 90° turn through the wind. What you're going to do now is whack that airplane around and make a 360 + 90° turn as he's doing his 90. And, as he's turning, he's translating - skidding, knocking the tops off the waves, so that if everything works out perfectly, he winds up 45° out of the wind to the left, and you're landing into the wind across his slick.

When you touch down, you're lined up right about amidships and aimed right at him. As you skip across the wake, the numbers will get bigger and bigger and bigger until all you can see is 82 staring you right in the face.

Then, at just the right moment, you will stop, because if you don't you will go off into the rough and everyone will jeer. So stop, and turn into the ship, and begin chasing down the sled they're towing.

Now, even though it's about this time that the cooks usually come out and throw garbage over the side, do you take this personally? No, indeed, you just keep watching for that sled.

It's about 12-15 feet long and 3 feet wide, canvas-backed with heavy rope cross straps. Taxi up onto the sled, and cut power - for only the daring keep their engine running. Then, as the airplane drifts back, the hook on the bottom of your float will engage one of the ropes. If not, immediately begin chasing that ship across the wide blue sea. Literally.

But, assuming success, pull the release on the top of the cowl, and two doors will open to reveal the hook-up mechanism. Although you're bouncing along, stand up in the cockpit - gracefully please - and reach up for the hook that the bo'sun is aiming right at your head. Grab it and hook onto the plane.

As the crane reels you in, you may think you've aged 30 or 40 years, but the whole procedure has taken only about three or four minutes.

Occasionally, especially in a rough sea, you'll bounce out of the sled. If you think eight knots is slow, look at a ship that's doing eight knots while you're doing zero, and you know you're 2,000 miles from the nearest land. Now that's lonesome!

Immediately, you'll have this terrible desire to get that engine going. And you're faced with a hot engine start. Well, there's a cartridge starter on the airplane, and you've got some shotgun-like shells with you. Even though the airplane is bobbing up and down like a cork and that ship is getting smaller and smaller in the distance, remember, they're going to keep right on driving that boat. So get out one of those cartridges and somehow find your knife.

With nerves of steel, carefully remove the wad that's on the front of the cartridge. Now, peel the cartridge halfway down, and throw out half of the powder. Put the reduced charge into the breech mechanism for the starter. See it? It's right there, right straight in front of you. But wait!

There's a safety diaphragm that's built into the breech mechanism, and it's supposed to contain everything in case over-pressuring occurs when it's fired. Should that happen, the diaphragm is supposed to keep the breech from blowing and coming back, and, while not exactly mortally wounding you - good-bye fun and games.

So, before you fire, a suggestion - wiggle around in the cockpit; get out of the way as best you can, and pray as you slip in that charge. Then, if all goes well, as you fire, the engine will start up right away, and you can begin chasing down the ship that's now a tiny speck upon the horizon.

NOTES:

1. Henry Woodhouse, Textbook of Naval Aeronautics (New York City, Century Co., 1917.)

2. NAVAIR 00-80P-1, United States Naval Aviation, 1910-1970 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.)

3. Peter Padfield, The Battleship Era (New York City, David McKay Co., Inc., 1972.)

4. Fred C. Dickey, Jr., "The SlingShot Flyers," (Journal of the American Aviation Historical Society (Vol. 6, No. 2, 1961.) Only adding fuel to the Devil's Island syndrome associated with the VO/VS squadrons, was the paperwork set-up of these units. Without any close attachment to ordinary naval aviation channels, they often experienced great difficulty getting resupplied. The VO/ VS squadrons (according to Dickey) became adept at filling their own requisitions. When the Providence was inventoried in 1947, it was found to contain, among other oddities, a box of parts for the left flaps of several SNJs.

5. Thetford & Maycock, Aircraft of the Fighting Powers, Vol. VI (England: Harborough Publishing Co., Ltd., 1945.)

6. Curtiss-Wright Corp., Airplane Division Report No. 20499 (Second Revision) Nov. 24, 1944.7. Charles E. Roth



Your input is vital to this article.

If you had a part in the SC-1's life on the USS Little Rock, let either Woody Donaldson
or Art Tilley know. We'd like to add your photo(s) or comments to this page.


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