Camouflage Paint Scheme - Measure 22

as it pertains to

U.S.S. Little Rock CL 92


Page last updated: 4 August, 2017

Many USS Little Rock sailors don't know that their ship had two "official" paint schemes during her time as CL 92. As with most ships during the WWII and post-WWII era, the ship's paint scheme was designed to camouflage the ship so as to make it more difficult for the enemy to identify its class, speed, and size.

Painting naval vessels so as to camouflage them was a "science" unto itself.  Over the years many paint schemes were utilized by the US Navy to make vessels appear in some way different than reality. There are many sources of information on the internet that provide a more elaborate description of the various schemes in the past. One excellent source is Wikipedia's page on "Dazzle Camouflage" paint schemes, and another is US Navy Camouflage provided by Snyder & Short Enterprises of Sacramento, CA.

Below are two photos of USS Little Rock CL 92 which show the significant differences between the two paint schemes. Note that a quick giveaway, although not always infallible, is the smaller hull number used in the Measure 22 scheme.



CL92 with Measure 22 Paint

USS Little Rock CL 92 with Measure 22 Camouflage paint scheme.
(Note lighter upper portion of the hull and the small hull number.)




CL92 Standard Paint Scheme

USS Little Rock CL 92 without a camouflage paint scheme.



A Short History of US Naval Camouflage in WWII

from: http://usndazzle.com/1Web/Articles/Camo.html


"Measure 22 was also introduced in the June 1942 revision as another graded system to replace Measure 12.   This measure was intended for use on combatant ships in areas where bright weather with fair visibility predominated, and high angle aerial observation was unlikely.  Navy blue (5-N) was applied to the hull up to the height of the main deck edge at its lowest point with the upper edge of this navy blue area horizontal.  Haze gray (5-H) was painted on all remaining vertical surfaces and all masts.  Deck blue (20-B) was applied to all decks and other horizontal surfaces.   The undersides of overhanging horizontal surfaces were painted with white (5-U) to lighten shadows.  This measure was often referred to as two-toned North Atlantic gray and a great many ships wore this camouflage while in the Atlantic."

Ship Camouflage

from: Wikipedia

"Some two-color paint schemes attempted to harmonize with both sea and sky near the horizon. The US Navy painted some ships dark gray with white structures above bridge level. Both the US Navy and the Royal Navy painted ships dark gray on the hull and light gray on the superstructure and turrets. USN Measure 12 was a graded system with sea blue low on the hull below the first continuous deck, with ocean gray above that. The top of the masts were painted haze gray. This measure was modified with ocean gray above navy blue low on the hull below the first continuous deck (painted parallel to the waterline rather than the main deck). This bold contrast on a horizontal line near the horizon reduced visibility to surface observers and created the illusion of greater range. This camouflage was considered most effective for gunnery engagements with surface units or shore batteries in areas where aerial observation was unlikely. It was used in the Atlantic and European coastal waters from the end of 1942 through the end of World War II. It was worn by shore bombardment ships in the Pacific from late 1944 after the destruction of Japanese naval aviation capability at the Battle of the Philippine Sea.  Similar Admiralty standard schemes were applied beginning in 1944 when it was assumed enemy forces would have radar. Ships were painted light gray overall, except for a sea blue patch low on the hull, either between the main gun turrets or the entire length of the hull...."


A Definition of Ship Camouflage

Extracts from:

SHIP CAMOUFLAGE INSTRUCTIONS
UNITED STATES NAVY
SHIPS - 2
SECOND REVISION
Bureau of Ships
June 1942
Second World War

"Ship Camouflage may be defined as the means by which the visibility of a ship is reduced, or the means by which deception is caused in course or range estimation, or in class identification."

"The most common method of attaining these ends is through some form of special painting...."

"Effectiveness (Measure 22)....  This measure is intended for use on combatant ships in areas where bright weather with fair visibility predominates, and high angle aerial observation is unlikely, and there is a likelihood of a gunnery engagement. There will be some reduction of visibility when viewed from low-flying planes, and from higher altitudes at extended ranges...."

"Useful for combatant ships operating in areas where greatest danger might be expected from gunnery action either from shore batteries or from enemy surface ships. Moderately high visibility to aerial observation at close ranges...."



Below is a brief summary of the "Measure 22 - Graded System" paint scheme used
to provided the camouflage desired during and just after the Second World War.




Measure 22, Graded System
(Source: Ships-2, Rev. 2, June 1942)




Vertical Surfaces:

     Navy Blue 5-N
          To be applied to the hull to the height of the main deck edge at its lowest point.
          The upper edge of this Navy Blue area should be horizontal.

     Haze Gray, 5-H
          All remaining vertical surfaces and all masts and small gear.

Horizontal Surfaces:

     Deck Blue, 20-B

Wood Decks:

     Wood decks except on submarines and carriers shall be darkened to the color Deck Blue.
     Deck Blue paint shall be used in lieu of stain for this purpose.

Canvas Covers:

     Canvas covers visible from the outside vessel are to be dyed a color corresponding to Deck Blue.

Notes:

  • The camouflage painting need not be exact or carried into corners.

  • Small gear, wires, rigging, and areas permanently in shadow, as under boats, etc., need not be painted with the camouflage colors.

  • There is no objection to exact or careful painting which may be desired for the sake of good appearance at close range.

  • All bright or shiny objects, no matter how insignificant, shall be painted, covered, or removed.

  • Glass windows shall be covered or removed, especially during the day in sunny weather, and at night when anticipating searchlight discovery. Insofar as conditions permit, similar precautions shall be taken on airport lenses.




Measure 22 Colors and Definitions

Color
Sample

Navy
Number
Official
Color
Vallejo
Number (*)
Vallejo
Name (*)

20B
Deck Blue
867

Dark Blue Grey


5-H
Haze Gray
905

Pale Blue Grey


5-N
Navy Blue
816
Luftwaffe
Uniform WWII

(*) Vallejo paint names and numbers are used by many model builders.
They are provided here for reference only.
No guarantee is given or implied as to their suitability for model building.


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